Economics & Business Solutions Journal Volume 1, Number 1, 2017, 57-63
ANALYSIS ON FACTORS INFLUENCING CAREER WOMEN’S FEAR OF SUCCESS AND ITS EFFECT ON WORK PERFORMANCE (A Study in Semarang City) Dian Triyani1 Rr. Lulus Prapti N.S. Surjanti Economics Faculty Semarang University ABSTRACT Fear of success occurs when a person receives a distraction in the form of fear of his own ability to complete or attempt to complete a challenging task or job. This study aims to conduct an empirical test and analyze the effect of social support, career development and work competition situation against fear of success, and its effect on work performance. The total number of samples in the study is 96 respondents, with a specific characteristic of married women working in banking. The study employs SPSS for analysis technique. The results show that social support affects negatively fear of success, thus the higher the social support, the less the fear of success. On the other hand, factors of career development and work competition situation affect positively fear of success. Thus, the higher career development and job competition, the greater the fear of success. Further, fear of success factor affects positively on the career performance of career women. A person who has fear of successful career, in which she attributes the success internally, then she is at her high performance. Keywords: social support, career development, work competition, fear of success, and job performance INTRODUCTION Educational improvement and commitment to achieve emancipation have created gender equality in various aspects of Indonesian life, including job opportunity. Tewal (2014) suggests that women have the same opportunities to job as men do. The decision to take on two different roles in a household and at work is naturally followed by the demands from self and the fulfillment of economic needs. This demand of self and necessity of life calls for the same thing, that is, the success of the two roles. Indeed, ideally every woman can live all the roles adequately and perfectly, but it has never been easy. A lot of women play a dual role recognizing that it is operationally difficult to divide their time for domestic affairs and work matters. The consequences often faced by women in the double role are the success of fifty-fifty in each role, or a success only in one role, while the other role must come in second or be neglected. In terms of economic aspects, in general, Indonesia is experiencing a rapid development. According to Central Bureau of Statistics (Badan Pusat Statistik/ BPS), within the period of 2011-2015 its national economic development grew more than 5% annually. However, 1
participation of women worker/employee is still much lower than that of men according to Central Bureau of Statistics in 2015, with a ratio of 0.61: 1. There are many reasons why Indonesian women choose not to work, both by choice and compulsion. The mindset that women have the disposition to take care children and households full time, the low level of education that leads to limitation of alternatives of decent work, violence against women in the workplace, and wage gaps are among many reasons why the ratio of women worker/employee is still not equal to that of men worker/employee. In terms of economic aspects, in general, Indonesia is experiencing a rapid development. According to Central Bureau of Statistics, within the period of 2011-2015 its national economic development grew more than 5% annually. However, participation of women worker/employee is still much lower than that of men according to Central Bureau of Statistics in 2015, with a ratio of 0.61:1. There are many reasons why Indonesian women choose not to work, both by choice and compulsion. The mindset that women have the disposition to take care children and households full time, the low level of education that leads to limitation of alternatives of decent work, violence against women in the workplace, and wage gaps are among many reasons why the ratio of women worker/employee is still not equal to that of men worker/employee. Although the existing government and law policies have formally provided an equal opportunity for men and women to study, develop their careers, and receive nondiscriminatory treatment, in reality however, women encounter more obstacles than men in developing their careers. The obstacles can be of internal factors that come from within themselves, external factors that come from outside, or they can be a combination of the two factors. These barriers are associated with personal motivation, multiple roles, guilty feeling, the boldness for success, experience, family support, and work environment. The lack of boldness for women to actualize and express themselves also causes women to create their own barrier. (Linandar, 2009) This lack of boldness for women to actualize and express themselves is also known as fear of success. For women, fear of success is projected in the confidence to compete in a situation for an achievement that will bring negative effects such as a loss of femininity, social rejection, and unpopularity that hampers the ability and aspirations of women to achieve performance or achievement. (Yusnita, 2010). A mother who experiences a fear of success will find it difficult to perform her job. There is an anxiety that the family will be neglected if she is successful in her career, so she might be reluctant to achieve a successful career. A person will feel much less fear of success if she has the self-confident and that self-confidence arises when she gains the trust and support from others around her, especially the closest people (Aswin, 2008). Based on the above background of research problems, the authors has set an objective for this study, i.e. to conduct an empirical research and to analyze the effect of social support, career development and work competition situation against fear of success, and its effect on work performance.
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RESEARCH METHOD This study employs population of female workers within Semarang city. Sample of this study consists of 96 respondents, with the characteristics of women who are married and work in banking. The study employs SPSS for analysis technique. This method is used to describe complicated relationships. In this study, however, SPSS is used more to explain an in-depth measurement indicator of variables. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Multiple linear regression analysis is used to show the influence of independent variable to dependent variable. The equation result of multiple regression analysis using SPSS program is as follows: Y1 = -0.173 X1 + 0.445X2+ 0.267X3 Y2 = 0.574 Y1 + e The Influence of Social Support on Fear of Success Social support negatively influences significantly on fear of success, which indicates that female employees who feel that they have the support from their family to work in an institution/organization will be bolder to reach the success in their careers. Their families are willing to understand that women are also entitled to develop their career in addition to performing duties as wives/housewives. Career women are more motivated to achieve their success if their family, especially partners (husband) would work together to perform household chores. Their families also agree if household chores are performed by a substitute. The finding is in line with a theory that a successful career woman has a partner/husband and family who not only support, but also encourage her career. The result of this study is also in line with a research by a Faculty of Psychology of University of Indonesia, that Indonesian working women have a low fear of success. The phenomenon is noticeable in working women who live in Jakarta, Bandung, Central Java, East Java, and Medan. They have insignificant fear of success because of they receive the support from their family. With the social support, career women will be more motivated and confident to deal with all matters including fear of success. The Influence of Career Development on Fear of Success The empirical test results in this study indicate that a career development positively influence significantly on fear of success. This indicates that career development programs have a direct influence on increasing fear of women employee success in the city of Semarang. Fear of success experienced by these career women is due to career development goal set by their company, in which employees who have higher education receive the opportunity to develop their career. Not only having higher education, they also have to achieve high performance. This creates a fear of failure in to achieve performance. Fear of failure arises because they have to achieve the goal sets by the company to achieve their career, meanwhile, they should also be able to divide their time of completing the work task and the time with family. Women
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who are lack the support from their families will experience a greater pressure in performing their tasks, both as housewives and as employees. They should be able to achieve work performance to improve their career, but they cannot eliminate the natures as housewives who must be able to maintain a harmony in the family. The findings support the research conducted by Yusnita (2010) that women have to perform their duties as mothers. The community in Tasikmalaya city assumes that women cannot openly interact outside their house, including in developing their career. This is an obstacle to their success. The Influence of Office Competition Situation on Fear of Success The situation of work competition positively and significantly affect on fear of success. This suggests that if employees are in a high-competition situation, they will experience fear of successful career as well. Conversely, in an environment where work competition is low, they will experience a low fear of success as well. Fear of success experienced by the studied career women is also caused by competition among co-workers. Competition among co-workers makes women become afraid of failure in achieving success. They want bonuses or a promotion/better position offered by the company. But to get these, they have to compete with their co-workers. Whereas to be able to compete with others, they must absolutely focus to provide their energy and mind at work. These are the reasons why they feel fear of failure in achieving success. However, fear has instead created a positive effect on their work. The fear they feel is the anxiety that cannot match or even outperform the performance of their co-workers. This is in line with the finding from a study conducted by Sari (2011) that work competition situation positively influence fear of success. However, there is one distinct difference between the study conducted by Sari and this study. Sari’s study suggests that fear of success perceived by career women affects their performance; therefore they are reluctant to maximize their ability to work. They feel uncomfortable if their success will make them lose their femininity, and therefore they tend to work without maximum effort to improve their competence in work. Whilst in this study, the fear felt by the women in their work is fear of failure. They are afraid of not achieving performance. Accordingly, fear has an effect on the increased work result. The highly competitive work situation spurred on improving their work performance. The difference between the study conducted by Mulya Sari with the current study may have occurred due to the difference of local culture where research is located. The Influence of Fear of Success on Work Performance Fear of success positively influence significantly on the work performance of career women. This suggests that the higher the fear of success, the better the work performance. A person who has a fear of successful career, in which she attributes the success internally, in that case she is at her high performance. Accordingly, a career woman who tends to experience a fear of success is the one who uses more attribution internally, because she is able to see a success as a result of her own ability or effort, however, due to social pressure, the society requires
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her to maintain the harmony of environment, and therefore makes her feel the need to consider the negative consequence of future success. This finding is in line with the finding from a study conducted by Sahrah (2011), in that the attribution of success or failure created by a person will have an implication on one’s selfesteem and individual effort in the next achievement. CONCLUSION Based on the finding of this study, it can be concluded that social support affects negatively fear of success. Career development affects positively on fear of success. The situation of work competition positively affects fear of success. Fear of success positively affects the fear of success. SUGGESTIONS Although the fear of success positively affects the work performance, the company still has to reduce the fear among women employees, as it will lower their performance if it occurs for a long period. Companies should improve communication with their employees so that they can reduce employees’ anxiety in performing their work. REREFERENCES Apollo & Cahyadi, Andi, 2012, Konflik Peran Ganda Perempuan Menikah yang Bekerja Ditinjau dari Dukungan Sosial Keluarga dan Penyesuaian Diri (Conflicts of the Working Married Women’s Dual Roles on the Perspective of Family Social Support and Self Adaptation), Widya Warta no. 02 Year XXXVI Arinta L.L, 1993, Konflik Peran Ganda dan Peran Jenis Androgini pada Ibu Bekerja (Conflicts of the Working mothers’ Dual Roles and Androgyny Role type, Jurnal Psikologi, 2 Aswin Bramasta, 2008, Hubungan antara dukungan sosial dan sikap terhadap karakteristik pekerjaan dengan ketakutan akan sukses wanita karir (the Relationship of Between Social Support and Attitude on Working Characteristics with the Career Women’s Fear of Success), Faculty of Psychology, Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta Bass B.M, 1990, Handbook of Leadership Theory: Research and Managerial Application (3 ed). London: Collier McMillan Publisher Bernardin, H.C. and Russel, J.E.A. (1998), Human Resource Management, Jurnal penelitian Humaniora, vol.19, no.2 October Budiman, 2006, Persepsi Efektivitas Kinerja Karyawan ditinjau dari Konflik Peran Ganda Istri dan Dukungan Sosial Rekan Kerja (The Effectiveness Perception on Employee Performance Based on the Perspective of Housewives’ Dual role Conflicts and Working Colleagues’ Social Supports), Thesis, Faculty of Psychology, Gadjah Mada University Ciptoningrum, Palupi, 2009, Hubungan Peran Ganda dengan Pengembangan Karier Wanita [The Relationship of Dual Roles with the Career Women’s Development] (Kelurahan Menteng, Kecamatan Bogor Barat, Kota Bogor propinsi jawa barat), Bachelor Thesis, Department of Communication Sciences and Community Development, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Institute of Agriculture.
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ANALYSIS ON FACTORS INFLUENCING CAREER WOMEN'S FEAR ...
Economics & Business Solutions Journal Volume 1, Number 1, 2017, 57-63
ANALYSIS ON FACTORS INFLUENCING CAREER WOMEN’S FEAR OF SUCCESS AND ITS EFFECT ...
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