Sustainable development of water resources in Bangladesh in the context of planetary boundaries and environmental performance index Md. Khalequzzaman, Professor, Dept. of Geology & Physics, 301 West Church Street, Lock Haven University, Lock Haven, PA 17745, Phone: (570) 484-2075, email: [email protected] Abstract: Due to low-lying elevations (15% of land below 1 m) and dense population (1,142/sq.km in 2011), Bangladesh is considered one of most vulnerable countries in the world to the impact of climate change. Hydro-meteorological shocks, including inundation of coastal plain due to relative sea level rise, salinity ingress in cropland and fresh water resources, drainage congestion and sanitation, reduction in crop yield, soil moisture loss, salinity intrusion in groundwater aquifer, loss of biodiversity due to decline of the coastal mangrove forest, and impact on human health will prove to be the major challenges related to climate change in Bangladesh. Most land area in Bangladesh belongs to the Bengal Delta that requires uninterrupted, natural flow of fresh water to keep salinity intrusion at bay and sedimentation rates that are greater than the rate of sea level rise. Currently, the uninterrupted flow of water and sediments in trans-boundary rivers are not guaranteed as there exist numerous dams and water diversion projects in upper riparian regions. Bangladesh lies at the receiving end of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basins and accounts for 7% of the catchment area. Empirical data indicate that at present, the amount of river-borne sediment flux to the coastal plain of Bangladesh has declined to only half of the 2 billion tons/year in the 1970s, which is not enough to keep pace with the observed rate of up to 17 mm/year of relative sea level rise. The resulting deficit of sediment supply will lead to accelerated inundation of the coastal plain, displacing millions of inhabitants and threatening the survival of the Sunderbans – the World Heritage Site. The challenges posed by climate change and growing economic development require that the quantity and quality of water resources in Bangladesh be managed by sustainable development policies. Without such a plan, Bangladesh will continue to face serious challenges to achieve economic growth to support the growing population confined in a densely-populated land with declining water resources. The water resources are intertwined with most of the planetary boundaries, such as ocean acidification, loss of biodiversity, nutrient loads, land system changes, and chemical pollution, all of which either already have exceeded or are about to exceed the threshold limits required for beneficial uses. The Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) is a step in the right direction, but it falls short of meeting the criteria for sustainability indices, including the environmental performance index. This paper makes recommendations to modify the BCCSAP in light of the Bellagio Principles for sustainable development assessment and the desired characteristics of sustainability indicators.
Elements of Sustainable Development: The concept of sustainable development is centered on equal emphasis given to environmental, economic, and social dimensions. In other words, sustainability measures focus on the integrative whole of human-environment systems. Sustainability indicators must take into
account the success achieved by the society on the economic front, while safeguarding the environment and ensuring social justice. Development indicators should focus on more than economic growth in terms of increase in GDP or GNI of a country; they should encompass efficiency, sufficiency, equity, and quality of life (Wu and Wu, 2012). There exists numerous definitions, indicators, and indices to measure successful sustainability in a society, which make it difficult to assess overall sustainable development. This paper evaluates the state of sustainable development of water resources in Bangladesh in context of the Bellagio Principles for Sustainable Development Assessment and commonly used composite sustainability indices, such as the Human Development Index (HDI), Happy Planet Index (HPI), and Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI). The main elements of the Bellagio Principles for Sustainable Development Assessment includes guiding vision, essential elements, adequate scope, openness, broad participation, and ongoing assessment of activities related to developmental projects (Hardi and Zdan, 1997). Economic Growth vs Environmental Performance: Bangladesh has made progress in terms of economic growth in recent years. The annual percentage growth rate for GDP ranged between 5.0% and 7.1% during 2005-14 and the country was designated by the World Bank as a low middle income economy in 2015. The GDP per capita has increased from $485 in 2005 to $1096 in 2014 (World Bank, 2015). The GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population and does not take into account individual income of the population. The industrial and manufacturing sectors contributed 27.9% of GDP in 2014 as compared to 9% in 1994 (Rahman et al., 1994; World Bank, 2015). The distribution of benefits from this economic development, however, has not been socially just. The gap between rich and poor has widened during the last 30 years (Sarkar, 2014). The income share of the top 1% has increased from 18.3% to 24.6% between 1984 and 2010, while the income share of the bottom 5% has declined from 1.2% to 0.8% during the same period (Titumir and Rahman, 2011). Although the percentage of population below poverty has dropped from 48.9% in 2000 to 31.51% in 2010, the total number of people below the poverty line remains at 57.3 million in 2013 (World Bank, 2015). Economic growth in Bangladesh has taken place at the cost of environmental degradation. The percentage of land area covered by forest is relatively low and has declined from 11.2% in 2005 to 11.0% in 2012. The number of threatened plant and fish species in 2012 stands at 17 and 18, respectively (World Bank, 2015). Bangladesh ranked 169 out of 178 countries in the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) for 2014 (YCELP and CIESIN, 2014). The EPI ranking is based on composite scores on 9 parameters, including the air quality (Bangladesh ranked 178), water and sanitation (ranked 131), water resources (ranked 145), biodiversity and habitat (ranked 123). The opposite trends in economic growth and environmental performance clearly indicates that the development in Bangladesh is not environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive as millions of people continue to suffer from poor air and water quality, and lack of water and sanitation.
Water Resources in Bangladesh in the Context of Planetary Boundaries: Human-induced changes on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt changes in global climate and hydrosphere can no longer be unrecognized as being caused by human activity. Recently, scientists have proposed nine planetary boundaries within which they expect that humanity can operate safely (Rockstrom et al., 2009). Water is a central element in several of the nine planetary boundaries, namely climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone depletion, biogeochemical flows of P and N cycles, global freshwater use, atmospheric aerosol loading, land system changes, rate of biodiversity loss, and chemical pollution. For instance, Bangladesh being a low-lying delta and one of the most densely populated land in the world is considered the ground zero of climate change. Should the sea-level rise by one meter, about 17% of the land in Bangladesh will be rendered inhabitable for more than 20 million people. Further climate change induced hydro-meteorological disasters that will devastate the economy and ecosystems in Bangladesh include increased frequency of tropical cyclones, flooding, water-logging, salinity ingress to coastal aquifers or sanitation and septic systems in coastal region, and the disappearance of the Sunderbans – the World Heritage site. Ocean acidification will damage marine ecosystems and have detrimental impact on fisheries. Increased surface run-off from flooding events will negatively impact the N and P cycles in agricultural crop fields, resulting in algal bloom and eutrophication of coastal zone. As of 2010, Bangladesh uses 155 tons of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer per 1000 hectares of arable land as compared to 91 tons and 112 tons in India and the U.S., respectively. Bangladesh withdraws 87.82% of water for agriculture as compared to 90.94% and 41.17% in India and the U.S., respectively, which is fairly high for a low-lying country. Bangladesh, India, and the U.S. apply 1.31, 0.27, and 2.35 tons of pesticide per 1000 hectares of arable land, respectively, which contributes to chemical pollution of water bodies (FAOSTAT, 2015). Although Bangladesh applies less pesticides as compared to the U.S., she applies almost 5 times as much pesticides as India. Challenges to Sustainable Development of Water Resources: The challenges and impediments to sustainable development of water resources in Bangladesh can be divided into trans-boundary and domestic categories. The geographic region known as Bangladesh is but a small part of the Ganges-Barhmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basins, which occupy 1.7 million km2 area in China, Nepal, Bhutan, India, and Bangladesh. Only 7.4% of the GBM basins are located in Bangladesh, yet 27% of the total population lives here (UNEP and AIT, 2008). Since Bangladesh is located at the downstream part of the GBM basins, the state of the water, both in terms of quantity and quality, is directly tied to the activities in the upper region of these basins. All 57 majors rivers in Bangladesh originate outside of the country; 54 rivers flow from India and 3 rivers flow from Myanmar. Of the 57 trans-boundary rivers, there exists only one bilateral treaty between India and Bangladesh on sharing of the Ganges River flow during lean season. Despite the existing treaty, Bangladesh did not receive the agreed amount for most of the period during 2008-12 (Islam, et al., 2013). Bangladesh’s dependence for flow of water from upper riparian countries is the root cause of vulnerability of this precious resource (Muhammed, 2004). Of the total annual renewable flow of 1,211 billion cubic meters (BCM) of water in the GBM basins, only 105 BCM (8%) originate within the territory of
Bangladesh (UNEP and AIT, 2008). Unilateral control of surface water flow in the GBM basins by the upper riparian countries lies at the heart of insecurity of water resources in Bangladesh and is a major impediment to sustainable development of water resources. So far, more than 600 large dams have been built or are in some stage of construction or planning in the geologically active Himalayan Mountains. In recent years, India and China have made plans to build 150 large hydropower projects on the Brahmaputra River, 80 of which are located in Arunachal Pradesh of India that is located upstream of Bangladesh, and is considered the most seismically active region in India (Behrman, 2009). In addition, Indian government is actively pursuing the inter-linking of rivers project (ILRP). The ILRP envisages linking 37 major rivers with 31 artificial link canals (totaling 14,000 km in length), to transfer a total of 173 billion cubic meters of waters from surplus watersheds (e.g. Ganges-Brahmaputra), to the water-deficit watersheds (e.g., Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri, and Tapi) in the southern and western parts of the country (Khalequzzaman, et al., 2004). Climate change pose serious threat to the survival of Bangladesh as a large part of the country is located close to current sea level. More than 80% of Bangladesh belongs to floodplain and Bengal delta plain, and is highly vulnerable to sea-level rise, as it is a densely populated coastal country of low relief comprising broad and narrow ridges and depressions (Morgan and McIntyre, 1959). World Bank (2000) predicted a total of 10 cm, 25 cm and 1 m rise in sea-level by the year 2020, 2050 and 2100, which will affect a total of 2%, 4% and 17.5% of land mass in Bangladesh, respectively. Frihy (2003) reported 1.0 cm/year sea-level rise in Bangladesh. The most recent prediction for relative sea level rise in Bangladesh is much higher than the earlier predictions. Some estimates predict relative sea level rise of 4 meters in Bangladesh by the year 2050 (Pethick and Oxford, 2013). A 4 meter rise in sea level will inundate about 40% of the land area in Bangladesh and will displace 50 million people (Gardiner, 2014). The geologic records indicate that periods of rapid climate change often culminate in transient climates, with more extreme conditions than subsequent long-term climates (Zachos, et al., 1993). The future rise in sea-level due to climate change will result in severe challenges for all aspects of water resources management in Bangladesh. There exists a dynamic balance between the amount of sediment influx to a delta and the rates of sea-level fluctuations. When the river-borne sediment influx is adequate as compared to the rate of sea-level rise, a delta will grow seaward (Khalequzzaman et al., 2004). There is a continuous battle between the sea-level rise and vertical growth of a delta, and the winner of this competition is decided by the amount of sediment influx to a deltaic plain. The Ganges Brahmaputra delta has been aggrading (i.e. growing upward) at a rate that exceeds the rate of sea-level rise during the last 11,000 years. In fact, the amount of river-borne sediment was enough to create additional lands at the mouth of the major rivers. During 1973-2000 time period, the land area in the coastal region of Bangladesh has experienced a net growth of 1,882 hectares/year (Sarwar, 2005). The amount of sediments that enter Bangladesh via international rivers has been gradually declining over the last few decades. Khalequzzaman and others (2004) catalogued the amount of sediments influx to coastal region of Bangladesh using the existing literature. The amount of the total sediments that was carried by the GBM river-systems has declined from 2 billion tons/years in 1969 to 1 billion tons/years in recent years. About two-third of the sediment influx to Bangladesh is carried by the Ganges River and its tributaries (Holeman, 1968; Milliman and
Meade, 1983). Part of the decline in the amount of sediments coming to Bangladesh can be attributed to the reduction in water flow in the Ganges River due to construction of dams and barrages in the upper reaches of the Ganges watershed during the last few decades (Khalequzzaman et al., 2004). The state of water quality in Bangladesh is extremely poor (BAPA, 2014; Shahjahan, 2004; Anwar, 1993). Arsenic and other sources of groundwater contamination are widespread in 59 out of 64 districts in Bangladesh. In most cases, industrial effluents and other point sources of pollutions are directly discharged into rivers, streams, and ocean without proper treatment in Bangladesh. For instance, some 40,000 metric ton of toxic sludge containing hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, chlorine, chromium and other harmful chemicals from the tanneries are discharged into the Buriganga River in Dhaka every day. Only 18% of 14.5 million people living in the capital city Dhaka are covered by sewage treatment systems, the remaining 75% of raw sewage is directly discharged to the rivers and streams. The lone sewage treatment facility operated and maintained by Dhaka Water Supply and Sanitation Authority (DWASA) has a treatment capacity of 0.12 million cubic meters per day, while the daily volume of sewage generated in Dhaka city is 1.3 million cubic meters (IRIN Asia, 2015). Moreover, there exist no regulations to control non-point sources of pollution. Due to lack of land-use zoning in Bangladesh, encroachment of human settlement onto flood-flow zone and unplanned urbanization are primarily responsible for water-logging in major cities and low-lying coastal regions. Framework for Sustainable Development of Water Resources: The Heads of the State and Government have agreed to adopt 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) at the upcoming UN General Assembly in September of 2015. The SDGs properly placed importance on water resources development. The SDG 6 proposes to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. A specific target is to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030 (SDSN, 2015). The future success of Bangladesh’s strategy for adaptation against the impacts of climate change will mainly depend on how successfully the government of Bangladesh can persuade the government of India and other co-riparian countries to develop an integrated water and sediment resources management plan that will ensure necessary water and sediment inflow in coastal areas during all seasons in the future. Currently, India has unilateral control over water resources in all 54 common rivers and they don't allow enough water (and sediment) flow during dry season. The lack of water flow results in more salinity ingress in coastal rivers, which renders the soil unsuitable for domestic uses and crop production. One of the indicators by target for SDGs advocates for implementation of integrated water resources management plan at all levels, including through trans-boundary cooperation as appropriate (SDSN, 2015). Ideally, the international community will successfully facilitate such collaboration among coriparian countries in the GBM basins. Several studies documented that the amount of sediment-flow in rivers entering Bangladesh form upper riparian countries has declined from 2 billion tons/years in the 1960s to about 1 billion tons/year in the 1990s (Holeman, 1968; Curry &
Moore, 1971; Subramanian, 1978; Milliman & Meade, 1983; Milliman & Syvitski, 1992; Khalequzzaman et al., 2004). This reduction in sediment-influx has resulted in higher coastal erosion, lower sedimentation on delta plain, subsidence of land inside coastal polders, intensification of tidal range and lower land formation (Khalequzzaman, 2013; Pethick and Oxford, 2013). Co-riparian countries within the GBM basins need to address the future of water resources management in the context of climate change. As a downstream country in the GBM basin, Bangladesh does not have much maneuvering power in negotiation for fair share of water, but rather, relies on the upper riparian nations to abide by the international norm and best management practices in managing trans-boundary rivers. Bangladesh need to stress the issue of integrated water and sediment resources management plan in the context of climate change during negotiations at all levels with India and other upper riparian countries. Bangladesh should insist that India respect the principles of water resources management science, i.e. to follow the globally accepted norm of watershed or basin-scale management of water resources. In other words, India should develop policy for the common rivers as if Bangladesh were a part of India. All stakeholders in the GBM basins will have to accept the fact that water (and sediments) is the life sustaining resource for millions of people living in the GBM basins and the ecosystems it supports. It is imperative that the life-line of Bengal delta – the rivers – are allowed to flow freely as nature intended. The formation of a GBM Basins Commission that will ensure ecological functioning of all rivers and their tributaries in the basin area will be a step in the right direction. Currently, India’s water resources management plan results in a disproportionate level of control over Bangladesh. If one looks at the water control structures on all common rivers that enter Bangladesh from India, it will be obvious that India could never implement those water control structures against her own people, because neither science nor politics will support such actions. Bangladesh should seek equality and justice from India and other co-riparian nations, because our survival depends on it. Water is one of the most valuable and essential resources that humans need to sustain their livelihood; without enough good water our survival will be threatened. Bangladesh has plenty of both surface water and groundwater supply to support the entire population in Bangladesh. The amount of per capita water in Bangladesh is 7,939 m3/person/year; however, only 688 m3/person/year of the amount is generated within the country. By comparison, India’s per capita water amount is 1,729 m3/person/year, of which most of the amount is generated within the country. Less than 1,000/m3/person/year is considered as water stressed (Climate Data Information, 2010). In fact, after human resources, water is the most abundant resource in Bangladesh. If managed properly, water resources can transform Bangladesh into a very resourceful nation. A National Surface Water Quality Assessment Program (NSWQAP) needs to be formulated. One of the tasks of this program will be to delineate watershed boundaries of all creeks, streams, and rivers in the country. The NSWQAP will have to be multi-disciplinary in nature (Lindsey, Loper, and Hainly, 1997). For example, the Geological Survey of Bangladesh under the Ministry of Mineral Resources, Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Water Resources, and the Ministry of Environment can jointly form such an entity. All point and non-point sources
of pollution need to be identified and located on watershed maps. In order to be able to meet the SDG target to provide safe, affordable drinking water and sanitation to all by 2030, all sources of water pollution need to be documented, controlled, and regulated at all levels. To attain the SDG target of sustainable withdrawal of groundwater, several changes in the water usage will have to be implemented, such as reduction in water-intensive crops, change in irrigation, increase in rainwater harvesting, and improving water use efficiency in various sectors. Immediate Plan for Sustainable Development of Water Resources: In line with the proposed SDGs, the National Surface Water Quality Assessment Program (NSWQAP) needs to implement immediate measures to protect and improve the quality of surface water. The following is a list of activities and proposed plans of actions that need to be carried out to ensure quality of surface water: (a) the NSWQAP needs to delineate watershed boundaries of all streams and rivers. Base maps showing drainage networks and roads that can be used to access various points along those rivers and streams need to be prepared at different scales. Various maps showing soil type, geology, land-use and land cover (agricultural lands, forestry, wetlands, urban areas, etc.), flood propensity and depth, and ecologically sensitive areas need to be prepared for each watershed; (b) the NSWQAP needs to identify all potential sources of pollution (e.g. landfills, tanneries, pulp industries, fertilizer industries, pharmaceuticals, electroplating workshop, soap industries, chemical industries, ceramic industries, textile industries, paint and dye shops, furniture manufacturing, underground storage tanks for petroleum, etc.), and geo-reference them on base maps. The Geographic Information System (GIS) can be of great help in preparing various types of maps for each watershed; (c) the NSWQAP needs to establish baseline data on basic water quality in the entire country. Science teachers in high schools/colleges and students in science departments at universities (as well as any other groups of qualified people) can be trained rapidly in sampling procedures and analysis of water quality. The teachers can then act as coordinators or trainers to train others participants in the program. The university science teachers, scientific and research officers with NGOs, and other qualified persons can play a pivotal role in the water quality assessment program for nominal financial benefits or as volunteers. Once the volunteers or participants are prepared and equipped with basic sampling instruments, all major rivers and streams can be sampled on pre-determined days of certain times of the year to establish a “snapshot” of water quality nationwide (Pavine Watershed Alliance, 2000). Such information, when published, will have tremendous value to researchers and/or planners in assessing impacts of point sources and non-point sources of pollution. If sampled several times a year over a long period of time, the trends in water quality parameters can be assessed in the context of seasonal, climatic, and land-use changes in different watersheds. Community-based water quality monitoring will fulfill the SDG target that advocates for local community involvement in all phases of water resources management, and will help with the capacity building effort. The government will have to allocate budget on a priority basis to implement all phases of this project; (d) the government needs to establish mutually beneficial partnerships with various stakeholders (e.g. farmers, industrialists, fishermen, and any other groups of people who live in a watershed) and research institutions (e.g. colleges, universities, etc.) to
facilitate understanding about water quality problems and to device plans of actions to solve those problems; (e) the government authorities need to develop manuals of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that are appropriate for agriculture, industry, poultry farms, urban development, forestry, and other sectors to reduce pollution generated by those sectors (Allen, 1999; GA SS&WCC, 1994); (f) the NSWQAP needs to determine TMDLs for various contaminants that should be permitted to discharge in the water bodies by both point sources and non-point sources of polluters (GA DNR, 2002). The amount of discharge from point sources of pollution will have to be controlled by NPDES program; (g) several locations along streams and rivers in each watershed need to be selected very carefully to collect and analyze water samples for the following parameters: pH (acidity), alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, conductance, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonia, phosphate, chloride, sulfate, trace metals (lead, zinc, chromium, iron, copper, aluminum, arsenic, etc.), and coliform bacteria. The list of parameters to be studied should be modified depending on the specific situation and needs in a watershed and available resources; (h) the government needs to mandate building of centralized effluent treatment plants and wastewater treatment plants at each industrial zone; and (i) each administrative district in the country need to build sewage treatment facilities and landfills for solid waste disposal. Sustainable development requires integration of economic planning and preservation of natural resources, as well as safeguarding the environment (IUCN, 1992). No civilization can survive and thrive without clean water. Bangladesh, as a nation, is fortunate to have plenty of this vital resource. The quality of this valuable resource, however, is deteriorating rapidly. Only through a better understanding of the sources of pollution and processes that affect the quantity and quality of water can we save this precious resource for current and future generations. Understanding of a problem, however, is only half of the solution. The other half of the solution lies in communal actions. The people in the GBM basins can play a role in preserving the quality of water. All countries in the GBM basins need to join hands to protect this invaluable resource, as well as our very existence as a civilized society.
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Sustainable development of water resources in Bangladesh in the ...
Sustainable development of water resources in Bangladesh in the context of planetary boundaries and environmental performance index Md. Khalequzzaman,...
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Participatory action research (PAR) is associated with the community empowerment  that is required to maintain the local wisdom. Participatory action .....  Mikkelsen, B., Metode Penelitian Partisipatoris dan Upaya - upaya Pemberdayaan (terje
Bangladeshâ by Ahsan Uddin Ahmed (Bangladesh Unnayan Parishad, Dhaka); âAnalysis of GCM. Scenarios ...... diseases, water supply and sanitation, transport infrastructure, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, renewable energy and ..... At the same
Techniek, Bestuur en Management (TBM). Technische Universiteit Delft.  Dharmawan AH, et al., 2007. Konversi Lahan Pertanian dan Perubahan Struktur Agraria. Studi Kasus di Kelurahan Mulyaharaja, Kecamatan Bogor Selatan, Kota Bogor, Jawa Barat. Soda
ments or the refurbishment of existing facilities. Furthermore, architects should be familiar with environmental impact assessment (EIA), life cycle ...... รายงานฉบับสมบูรณ์ โครงการศึกษาแนวทางการออกแบบสถาปัตยกรรมยั่งยืนในประเทศไทย. [ The study of sus
Jun 17, 2008 - entwickelt, die folgende Parameter beinhaltet: Landnutzung, oberflÃ¤chlicher Abfluss (auch in. AbhÃ¤ngigkeit von der ... Die VulnerabilitÃ¤t der Wasserressourcen ist ein relativer, nicht-messbarer, dimensionsloser Parameter. Die ......
Jun 4, 2017 - Abstract. The paper analyses possible directions for sustainable development of heat supply systems of the countries participating in the Eurasian Economic Union when creating a united electricity market. The present problem is subject
volume. Part II continues the tradition of examining in each volume a particular region in more detailâin this case, an overview of the severe environmental and ... make it all possible. Thanks are also due to the World. Bank for assistance in dist
Jan 9, 2018 - Keywords: Drinking Water Salinity; Socio-Ecological Systems; Hypertension; Health; Coastal Bangladesh. * International Centre for Diarrhoeal .... by Bangladesh is 1000 mg/l Chloride. (Ahmed and Rahman, 2000) for coastal areas. Sodium ..
Nov 30, 2017 - Ahmed et al. (2006) estimate that initial tube well switching and the installation of deep tube-wells reduced exposures to arsenic by 29% and 12% (respectively) of the arsenic-exposed population by 2006, ... The Bangladesh Rural Water
The vision of the 1998 Bangladesh National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation. (NPSWSS) is to upgrade the ... The significance of modernized water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) is recognized by the inclusion of specific ... providing
80. KotaSurakarta. KotaSemarang. KotaSalatiga. KotaMagelang. Semarang. Temanggung. KotaPekalongan. KotaTegal. Klaten. Sukoharjo. Karanganyar. Pati ..... Undang-undang Nomor 33Tahun 2004. tentangPerimbangan Keuangan Pusat dan. Daerah. Undang-undang No
Detailed methodology sheets for each indicator are included in an ... of the 'blue book'.3. Overall, the focus of the CSD and its secretariat on indicators provided a very useful and timely forum for the discussion of national-level indicators ... Se
10. 1.5 Other Resistant Measures. 10. 1.6 Outliers. 11. 1.7 Transformations. 12. 1.7.1 The Ladder of Powers. 12. Chapter 2 Graphical Data Analysis. 17 ..... course. As a consequence, discussions of topics such as probability theory required in a gene
contractors must work closely with the âcompany manâ and the drilling contractor in order for the well to be completed properly. 2.4 Construction services. Civil works and electromechanical erection are also an important part of a geothermal proj
yang ada baik kebijaksanaan, peraturan, perencanaan, dan anggaran. Sektoral ... Dalam jangka waktu pendek/menengah, masalah pengelolaan tenaga kerja tidak bisa diatasi karena kekurangan anggaran ... program kawasan konservasi mereka, termasuk keuntun
Application of Social Marketing in Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis: Evidence from Indonesia. 61. Endang .... Experiential Learning Care to Increase Maternal Ability in Caring. Premature Infants. 107. Noer Saudah ...... Screening of Development Qu
Sep 6, 2015 - Bagan alir teknik analisis dalam manajemen sumberdaya air sebagai kerangkaanalitis penyusunan pola operasional bendungan harian; AGRITECH, Vol. ... Bendungan Batutegi, terdiri dari dua komponen yaitu kebutuhan air untuk irigasi di DI Se